Questioning the Foundations of Physics to Achieve Interstellar Travel: Part 1

Would It Keep Us Awake At Night?
It is not sufficient to just challenge the foundations of physics just for the theoretical interest. To make the challenge come alive we need a goal that will keep us awake at night at the possibility of new unthinkable inventions that will take man where no man has gone before.

Is interstellar travel possible? I have found that in trying to answer this question, I am forced to challenge the foundations of physics. This question provides a vessel to discuss how to challenge, and if we have found some of the answers, there are still more questions.

The two most important questions in my opinion are, what is force?, and what is the difference between ‘travel’ and ‘arrival’? That is, why do we need to ‘travel’, why can’t we just ‘arrive’?

I started questioning the foundations of physics in 1999. In attempting to answer the question, what is force?, in 2007 I discovered a new formula for gravitational acceleration g=τc2 that does not require us to know the mass of the planet or star. τ is the change in time dilation divided by the change in distance. This is an immense discovery, never before accomplished in the 346-year history, since Newton, of the physics of gravitational fields, as all theories on gravity require us to know the mass of the planet or star.

Gerard ‘t Hooft the 1999 Nobel Laureate showed in 2008 that gravitational forces can be present in space even where planets and stars are not. My work goes a step further. We can determine the acceleration present in space without any knowledge of the planets or stars that cause this gravitational field (Solomon, 2011).

A New Schema To Understand Propulsion Physics
Unlike Newtonian gravity or General Relativity, the importance of the shape of spacetime lies in the fact that it informs us of what time dilation and length contraction are, as these two parameters are the minimum information one requires to determine gravitational acceleration. Therefore, the formalism in this essay will be different from that of Newtonian gravity or General Relativity, as a tensor treatment is outside the scope of this essay.

A schema is an outline of a model of a complex reality to assist in explaining this reality. The work of various researchers in the gravity field can be presented by a conceptual formalism referred to as source-field-effect schema. The source-field-effect schema corresponds to the mass-gravity-acceleration phenomenon, respectively.

Puthoff’s (Amoroso et al, 2002) source-field schema describes how the mass source could create a gravitational field; how General Relativity’s curved spacetime could be produced by the polarizability of vacuum in the vicinity of a mass. Rueda & Haisch (Amoroso et al, 2002) source schema is about mass only. They discuss inertia mass, mass as a field and Higgs boson as the origin of mass.

Bondi (1957) suggested the possibility of a field schema not requiring mass. Bondi made two observations when reviewing gravitation as a theory and suggested that mass may not be critical to a theory of gravitation. First, as “long as relativity is considered purely as a theory of gravitation, the inertial and passive gravitational masses do not in fact appear.” This is consistent with the fact that gravitational acceleration (but not force) is independent of the mass of the object being accelerated. His second observation was that “active gravitational mass occurs for the first time as a constant of integration in Schwarzschild’s solution” suggesting the possibility that this constant of integration could have other experimentally untested interpretations.

One could conjecture that mass is a proxy for number of quarks and therefore a proxy for quark interaction as the source of gravitational fields. Bondi did not explicitly say it, but maybe one should look into other mechanisms for gravitational field sources. Hooft (2008) takes another step in Bondi’s direction with his source-field schema. He states that the “absence of matter no longer guarantees local flatness” that the absence of mass does not guarantee that acceleration will not be present. In effect the field is being disengaged from its source. Wagoner (1998) describes a local-field schema, how a gravitational field “emerges from a local analysis” leading to a broad class of metric theories.

Solomon’s (2009) schema proposed a different local analysis, one where local field distortions in spacetime lead to a local particle distortions, and alter the ‘shape’ of the particle causing the center of mass of the particle to shift. This shifting is seen as acceleration g and is governed by g = τc2, where τ is the change in time dilation divided by the change in distance across this particle; thereby providing a mathematical solution to Hooft’s (2008) assertion that “absence of matter no longer guarantees local flatness”.

 To be continued . . . Part 2 Here


Benjamin T Solomon is the author & principal investigator of the 12-year study into the theoretical & technological feasibility of gravitation modification, titled An Introduction to Gravity Modification, to achieve interstellar travel in our lifetimes. For more information visit iSETI LLC, Interstellar Space Exploration Technology Initiative.

Solomon is inviting all serious participants to his LinkedIn Group Interstellar Travel & Gravity Modification.


About Benjamin Solomon
Ben Solomon is a Committee Member of the Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee, American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA), and author of An Introduction to Gravity Modification and Super Physics for Super Technologies: Replacing Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger & Einstein (with Kindle Version)

15 Responses to Questioning the Foundations of Physics to Achieve Interstellar Travel: Part 1

  1. Pingback: Questioning the Foundations of Physics to Achieve Interstellar Travel: Part 2 « iSETI

  2. tonyon says:

    The theory of relativity is a monumental hoax…you know…354 days to 1 G of constant acceleration and they will see it… Someday when superluminal ship take off, it will go beyond… Mass not increasing with velocity. Time not decreasing with velocity. Speed of light only is an ordinary velocity more. Gravity do not is a “curvature” of “space-time”, really it is a force, like electromagnetic force, “space-time”=velocity-bacon. The “motor Warp” is another falsehood relativistic concep more, etc. Time put everyone in their place.

  3. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel (Alpha Centauri C: 1g)… passengers climb in the space-elevator to the ship…awaits them in the asteroids Toutatis, which long ago placed in geostationary orbit… Day 1: zero-speed…distance = 40.68 Billion kms (4.068*10¹³)…total time travel = 1490 days (4 years and 1 month)… THE SHIP TAKE OFF ►… 354 days to 1 G (9.8 mts/sec²) of CONSTANT ACCELERATION (weightlessness solved the problem), the ship with its powerful Antimatter rocket engines working tirelessly…the antigravity fields generator run forwards working, and no collisions with anything…the ship reaches light-speed…and still traveling at superluminal-speed > 1c… Day 745 (2 years and 15 days): the ship reaches the halfway…maximun superluminal-speed = 2.1c…”ladies and gentlemen please belts, for a few minutes while the motors are Off will be in weightlessness during the maneuver”…the ship rotates 180º around its “vertical” axis (perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of momentum)…On engines again and…◄starts to brake… Day 1136: the ship slows light-speed… 354 days more decelerating and the ship is at zero-speed, the passenger disembarks at destination, a planet of Alpha Centauri C.

  4. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)… Matter (gravitation, dimensions and inertia)…electromagnetic radiation…quanta (pieces) of energy in discrete amounts (minimum and independents), photons, which move in waves… why energy quanta (photons) are attracted by the gravitational fields of “stellar lenses” curving its trajectory and move on?… go ahead because they have inertia…and are attracted because the Energy also has Gravitation, but does not manifest because it no emits Graviton, or emit in imperceptible degree, because it has to be condensed enough like in matter for that, but is sensible Gravitation that Matter´s emit… Energy and Gravitation “associated”…and…the Gravitational Force is another manifestation, unknown yet, Energy…(no “curvature” of that called “space-time” relativistic)…beyond any exorbitant density/temperature Energy…Gravity (→attraction←)…becomes Antigravity (←repulsion→)…Big-Bang!!…its particle exchange, the theoretical Graviton yet…maybe “quanta of gravitational energy”… The Energy (e=mc²) is sensitive to Gravitation but hardly emits Graviton… The Matter, which is condensed Energy (m=e/c²), emits now Gravitons proportionally to its density… Matter normal density, naturally, emits few Gravitons (weak intensity of gravitational force). But…if someday could transform some matter, not in Energy by annihilation with antimatter but entirely in Gravitational Force with an exponential Gravitons emission…would have a way to amplify the Gravitational Force a certain amount of mass…gravitational transformers…for spacecraft to thousand G of constant acceleration…

  5. tonyon says:

    mathematical language?…as “mathematical” language of that tale “motor warp”. No. Time, Time. Thank you friend.

  6. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel (3)… L=2*3.14*r… that beam of a laser pointer that turn 180º, from horizon to horizon, in 1 second and 4 imaginary semicircular screens located, for example, to the distances from Earth… 1: 95493 kms… 2: Moon (384403 kms)… 3: Sun (150 Million kms, 1.5*10^8)… 4: Andromeda (2 million light years…19 Trillion kms, 1.9*10^19)… The mark of laser pointer to reach, would move laterally through each screen at an angular velocity of 180º/second and a linear velocity, based on the light of…(3.14*r)/c… km 95493= 1c… Moon= 4c… Sun= 1570c… Andromeda galaxy= 198 Billion*c (1.98*10^14)… If turn laser pointer to the right, why is going to bend each laser beam to the left, not to exceed c, from km 95493, radius “frontier” in which the speed of laserk mark on the screen = c ?… It could also be that a higher speed than speed of light, electromagnetic radiation becomes invisible and undetectable with current technology, entering a new and still unknown “superluminal dimension” wherein speed of light would be the minimum possible… Decreasing magnitudes have a close limit, but growing…have an “infinite” limit, to our knowledge, understood here as “infinite”, at least, an exorbitant figure… as with the TEMPERATURE (-273 ºC → “infinite”)… MATTER (quark → “infinite”)… TIME (0 → “infinite”)… SPACE (0 → “infinite”)…why it would be SPEED different…(0 kms/sec → “infinite”)?… A rapidly rotating star, as a pulsar, is something similar as laser pointer example and the fact that is has not observed any radiation rate > c… seems to be relativistic reason. There is something do not know…yet.

  7. tonyon says:

    are not “the physics laws”, are “the relativistic physic laws” that is not the same. And now, they can to continue with the relativistic tales of “the Lorentz factor & Co.” that already minus remains…1,000 years?

  8. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel (3b)…the question is to ask oneself whether we should consider as a real or fictitious speed the apparent displacement of laser mark on the screen. Because (apart from the different photon´s wave trains that make up the light beam are “almost” parallel, that is divergent, increasing the cross-sectional area of light beam with distance, and becoming thus increasingly tenuous) it´s really not the same light beam that rotates, but an “unlimited” number of light rays with limited length, leaving together from light source but, turning this, grow apart laterally from each other, as the ribs of a fan, with increasing travel distance; as we see in harbor lighthouse that rotates and the look towards us, seeing 1 beam of light instantly. So, as go turning laser pointer, each laser beam that go out in its direction going straight and to reach screen leaves its mark a moment, the next beam leaves its mark a moment, etc…separates two adjacent marks for a dark space, bigger in each semicircular screen, proportional to the radius. What we would see, as in frame of a movie, like the continuous displacement of 1 single mark apparent… Of course at an Andromedas´s radius the photons of each waves train would arrive…but the others photon´s wave trains of laser beam would so far…that would not see the mark.

  9. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration 2)… The Electromagnetic and Gravitational Forces have some obvius similarities as both are “inversely proportional to the squared of the distance that separate”…distance between two poles of magnetic fields the Electromagnetic…and distance between the centers of two masses the Gravitational…Just such as can now manipulate the Electromagnetic Force transforming it into different voltages, currents and electrical powers…electrical transformers… perhaps someday when that mysterious Gravitational Force reveals its secrets, can also transform and amplify it (converting the mass exponentially in Gravitons) somehow in different intensities and gravitational powers…gravitational transformers… Spacecrafts with indestructible structures made of Hexapentas materials, and the distribution of a building of housing flats (where are the foundations would be the nozzles, where the roof would be the command bridge)… Gravitational and Antigravitational fields directed forward would lead towards the admission entrances of mass, where immediately at half of matter would transform in antimatter to feed the insatiable demand for the voracious annihilation rocket engines ejecting the appreciable mass of the Pions, produced in large quantities, through the nozzles to the speed of light…a rocket´s thrust = linear momentum (mass*speed) ejection by nozzle in each second…and maintaining indefinitely to the ship at thousands G of constant acceleration… Powerful gravitational fields inside habitable compartments would counteract the HUGE CONSTANT ACCELERATION of the ship, keeping them to 1 G…

  10. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel constant acceleration (times to reach light-speed)… 1g (9.8 mts/sec²)=354 days …↓… 0.5g (4.9 mts/sec²)=1.94 years …↓… 0.25g (2.45 mts/sec²)=3.88 years …↓… 0.1g (98 cms/sec²)=9.7 years …↓… 0.01g (9.8 cms/sec²)=97 years …↓… 0.001g (9.8 mms/sec²)=970 years ______ Huge constant acceleration the ship, living areas to 1g: inside of living areas…”the same as going submerged in water”…↓↓↓↓g (motors)…less…↑↑↑g (gravitational transformers)=↓g… …↨… 2g (19.6 mts/sec²)=177 days …↨… 10g (98 mts/sec²)=35.4 days …↨… 100g (980 mts/sec²)=3.54 days …↨… 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)=8.5 hours …↨… 10000g (98 kms/sec²)=51 minutes …↨… 50000g (490 kms/sec²)=10.2 minutes …↨… 100000g (980 kms/sec²)=5.1 minutes …↨… 1 million G (9800 kms/sec²)=30.6 seconds… ((typewrite: interstellar travel constant acceleration))

  11. tonyon says:

    …3D Bioprinting-Immortality… ((sugar cotton fibers produced by centrifuge machines are even finer…capillaries are between 2 tenth and 1 hundredth of a millimeter in diameter…perhaps… Could be used these machines adapted as “biocentrifuges” to make capillary micro-tubes with a biodegradable and binder yarn of sugar inside coated with endothelial cells?))… Network capillary-skeleton, porosity among adjacent cells, A FINE MESH OF FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE fastening the cells: collagen?…fibrin? a blood´s protein in salty water insoluble who forms the cell´s-subjection-mesh of blood-coagula… SUITABLE POROSITY: both capillary networks (blood and lymphatic) could have a natural unequal aleatory distribution (Better or Worse Equidistance in each organism, better or worse equal feeding to ALL tissue´s cells) of MESH´S HOLES (in blood capillaries: exit for plasma with O2, nutrients, leukocytes…or entrance for CO2. In lymphatic capillaries: entrance for surplus lymph with cellular refuses lactic acid , etc…who cause muscular fatigue). Maybe the better or worse equidistant porosity of skeleton-mesh cell´s-subjection in each capillary tube; besides of genetics: …size and quantity of mitochondria per cell (only are inherited the mother´s mitochondria…), distance of insertion´s point the tendon of a muscle from the articulation to a bone (lever law), etc…; a natural cause for to win or not to win a medal in Olympic Games.

  12. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration 3)… Is it Gravity only a Matter hidden effect from the Electromagnetic Force?…or an extension with infinite reach from the same indestructible force which joins quarks among them for protons forming?… Light (photons) can be directed with a mirror… Gravity (gravitophotons) perhaps someday also the same such as light in a car´s headlight… This would be necessary for in ceiling´s artificial gravitational attraction directed only downwards, and so does not has effect on floor of the above apartment. This not can be observed in Universe because Gravitational Force actuates from all directions, but in…gravitational transformers…

  13. tonyon says:

    …interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)… Earth…the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems…indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers… Day 1: zero-speed… THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►… navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere…spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb… Antimatter rocket engines…ON… Here we go…goooooo!…1g…10g…100g…constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)… Inside the living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards…less…constant thrust, constant acceleration, from water upwards)…the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓…less…999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓… 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c…the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool…the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation…antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship…and trajectory ship away from the heavy objects…superluminal-speed > 1c… 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c… Day 508: Half Journey…1000 light years…high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c… OFF engines…a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver…the ship rotates 180º around its axis…motors ON again and… ◄STARTS TO BRAKE… Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party…2000 light years…zero-speed… The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting…Telomerase…modified Biological Timers…) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.

  14. tonyon says:

    …inter-Universe travel constant acceleration (parallel universes)… Big-Bang!!…whether separation among galaxies, where all stay in the expansive surface of sphere, go accelerating by the supposed antigravity of the supposed dark energy (perhaps accelerating because they attract with the galaxies from the Neighbor Universe)…perhaps expand until it collide with another shock wave from another Big-Bang of multi-Universes…(why was there clustering all the Universe´s ENERGY in 1 only sphere?, does not only there is 1 star…multiple spheres of energy here and there…each sphere a Local Universe with its Big-Bang…so, the UNIVERSE would be like a galaxy with its stars, each “star” a Local Universe)…which divided up the same Infinite EMPTY SPACE (as a group of balloons, each one separated from each other, to be swelling…the space inside and out, the Infinite Empty Space…and each balloon an independent Local Universe)… And if Gravitation shall get to stop the expansion, it´s evident that the fragments approximation (galaxies in apocalyptic collisions) would start among them with those nearest over the sphere´s surface, forming hyper-massive “clumps” of Matter ever increasing until the starts of major gravitational attraction with other “clumps” from the opposite end of sphere´s diameter already implosive…starting implosion in terminal phase of our and then uninhabitable Local Universe (maybe by then would have completed the inter-Universe exodus and there would be no one in this)… Exit to direction at 180º from center increasing our radius, distance from the center where there was the Big-Bang, in the opposite direction going towards the center of sphere would get more “inside” of our own Universe instead of going out. Maybe “nearer” the next Universe going in the same direction of expansion, that going at counter-expansion to “antipodes” (Galaxy Abell 1835…13200 million light years…to 1 Million G (!!!), 9800 kms/sec², at halfway maximum hyperluminal-speed = 3.7 light-years/second (!!!), total travel time = 226 years) of our… The Travel of all travels… Ship “Exodus-1″…heading 180º from center towards the Infinity…constant acceleration until to detect at front galaxies with strong differential deflection, discounting our own hyperluminal-speed, toward the Violet…the shock wave from our New Universe come to greet us…(and, no sooner said than done, launched themselves towards the gloomy darkness of Infinite)… Parallel Universes, we only carry the truth… Here we go…goooooo!►…

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