May 26, 2012
by Benjamin Solomon

I am very, very pleased that the 2nd edition of my book is fiinally, finally out!!

**Press Release:**

Dr. Andrew Beckwith, astrophysicist, writes in the Foreword of my book, “If Solomon is correct, then interstellar travel is possible.”

To facilitate gravity modification as a space propulsion technology and propose new avenues towards interstellar travel, I have had to take propulsion physics out of the realm of particle-based quantum & string theories while staying close to the experimental data. The discovery of the Non-Inertia (Ni) Field unifies gravity, electromagnetism and mechanical forces. I am sure strong & weak nuclear forces, too, but that is not my interest.

This book documents the first major break from traditional gravitational theories in 346 years, since Newton, because we don’t need to know the mass of the gravitating body to calculate gravitational acceleration. I’ve also included a test for natural versus theoretical gravitational fields.

And yes, one day in the near future, rocket engines will be replaced by semicon chips, and then only will non-government funded Commercial Space be viable.

I hope this book increases the funding for non-mainstream theoretical physics, experimental physics, and aerospace engineering, as it extends the reach of both physics and engineering to the new physics of propulsion.

**The Book:**

An Introduction to Gravity Modification, 2nd Edition

–

Are there new fundamental laws of Nature that can be verified this year? Yes, a few, and all are testable today.

Can we design force field engines and shields? Yes, definitely, within this decade.

This book reaches out to a wider audience, and not just theoretical physicists, to engineers and technologists who have the funding to experiment; just as Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson experimented with the Holmdel Horn Antenna and discovered the microwave background radiation. The mathematics is easier than that taught in theoretical physics and therefore accessible to a wider audience such as these engineers & technologists.

**Summary:**

*An Introduction to Gravity Modification* is the result of a 12-year (1999-2011) study into the theoretical and technological feasibility of gravity modification, that presents the new physics of forces by replacing relativistic, quantum, and string theories with process models. Gravity, electromagnetism and mechanical forces are unified by Ni fields, and obey a common equation *g = tc*^{2} (note, no mass in this equation). Yes, a unification at last. From the physics of propulsion to the engineering of propulsion engines. Answering the question, how does one build these new engines? It is all in the book. At least a start on how to do it.

Gravity modification is defined as the modification of the strength and direction of the gravitational acceleration *without the use of mass* as the primary source of this modification, *in local space time.* It consists of field modulation and field vectoring. Field modulation is the ability to attenuate or amplify a force field. Field vectoring is the ability to change the direction of this force field . This definition excludes the use of relativistic, quantum or string theories to solve the gravity modification problem as these theories require mass, momentum exchange and conservation of mass-energy to solve their equations. This is a major shift in paradigms.

The extensive numerical modeling and the early (1999-2001) experimental data suggests that semiconductor chips will be the future of propulsion engines. Imagine by 2020 Intel, AMD, Texas Instruments & Motorola are building the propulsion engines of the future, on semiconductor chips. Amazing, not just a shift in technology, but a shift in industrial resources, too.

The mathematical discovery of the photon’s spatial probability field (governed by the new Var-Gamma probability distribution) and the new photon model leads to the definition of subspace and more importantly how one can experimentally verify the existence of this subspace. Subspace provides an avenue for interstellar travel, by seceding out of spacetime at embarkation, into subspace and merging back into spacetime from subspace, at arrival. Why is this likely? Because the new spatial probability field provides a better fit with radiation shielding experimental data than quantum theory and leads to the unification of shielding, transmission, cloaking, invisibility and resolution as a single common phenomenon.

**Thank You:**

This study was an exciting but definitely not an easy (understatement) 12-year journey. Many, many people participated directly or indirectly in this journey. For that, I would like to thank Dr. Andrew Beckwith, astrophysicist (PhD in Condensed Matter Theory), for writing the foreword to this book.

**2011:** To thank Prof. Jack Sarfatti for his informal comments that led me to sit back and think about what I was doing and why – good professors do that to you. These are addressed in the first chapter of the book, Changing The Context. That there is the physics of propulsion. No, he has not read this book, and I believe that he does not agree with my ideas but that’s OK as it happens a lot in physics. That is why we have many different theories on gravity; relativity and its sibling theories, quantum’s gravitons and the various quantum gravity theories, and the many types of string theories.

**2011:** To thank Dan Scheld (N-Science Corp), Kevin Lewis (Lewis & Fowler), Edgar Johansson (Colorado Space Business Roundtable) for their companies/organizations sponsoring my trip to Orlando, FL, where I presented my paper “Non-Gaussian Radiation Shielding” at the 2011 DARPA/NASA Ames 100 Year Starship Study Public Symposium.

**2009-2011:** To thank the reviewers at Physics Essays (2009-2011) who asked a ton of difficult questions – I almost gave up on the paper – that transformed my SEPSIF 2009 paper (*An Approach to Gravity Modification as a Propulsion Technology*) into the

2011 Physics Essays paper *Gravitational Acceleration Without Mass & Noninertia Fields* (http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/1.3595113) that lays the foundation for the theoretical modeling of the physics of propulsion.

**2010:** To thank Eric Laursen, Chief Technology Officer, Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services, for taking time out to attend my ½ day Evergreen, CO, seminar on gravity modification in 2010. I especially appreciate this gesture.

**2009:** To thank Glen Robertson & Paul Murad both of whom vetted & scrutinized my SPESIF 2009 paper *An Approach to Gravity Modification as a Propulsion Technology*, presented and published in the Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences, International Forum, (SPESIF) AIP Conference Proceedings that would lay the foundation for writing future papers.

**2008:** To thank Dr. David Livingston, who had me on his internet/radio The Space Show (http://www.thespaceshow.com/), more than once, in 2008 and in 2003.

**2007:** To thank Leonard Volpi and his team for developing Xnumbers and making it available for free. This MS Excel Add-In enables MS Excel to do calculations to 250 significant digits. MS Excel only does calculations to 15 significant digits. Much of my research and the numerical modeling would not have been feasible without this tool. And I would like to thank the Microsoft MVP (apologies, I forget his name) who informed me about this Add-In. As an example in MS Excel c^2 = 89,875,517,873,681,800. However, with Xnumbers it is 89,875,517,873,681,764 or 36 (m/s)^2 less.

**2007:** To thank Mike Darschewski (formerly with GMAC Commercial Holdings) for showing that the Local Acceleration Model in a gravitational field does not have an analytical solution, and thereby strongly suggesting that the more sophisticated Schrödinger wave equation, too, does not have an analytical solution in a gravitational field.

**2006:** To thank Prof. Paul Joss of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, who gave me the opportunity to attend his summer 2006 *Professional Program in Relativity, Gravity, and Cosmology [8.06s]*. That was an eye opener, that the physics community was primarily focused on the physics of astronomy and cosmology. At that time I had not fully understood this, and only realized these subtle distinctions after my brief communications with Prof Jack Sarfatti in 2011. Sometimes, subtle shifts take a long time to percolate.

**2005:** To thank the National Science Foundation for turning down my grant application to redo the Laithwaite Big Wheel experiments. I, then and there, resolved to solve this enigma, and I did in 2007 after the discovery of Ni fields.

**2005:** To thank the Mars Society, especially the Rocky Mountain Chapter, for providing the opportunity to present my work on the Laithwaite Effect at the 2005 International Mars Society Conference.

**2005:** To thank Bob Schlitters of Conifer, CO, who agreed to construct 50lb steel discs and related fixtures, spin them to 3,000rpm and rotate the spin vector. We stopped the experiments when the weld connecting spinning disc to its axial rod broke off and shot across the machine shop. I have not seen 3 people (Bob, my son David & myself), before or since, scramble to safety as quickly as we did.

**2005:** To thank Doug of Doug Balancing of Lakewood, CO who could dynamically balance these 50lb steel discs when even the race car specialist off Santa Fe Drive could not. Imagine that!

**2005:** To thank Marc Millis for explaining Thomas’ reproduction of Laithwaite’s experiment at NASA.

**2001-2007:** To thank the National Space Society (NSS) especially George Whitesides, then Executive Director, and the many staff & volunteers who managed these great grass roots conferences, for giving me the opportunity to present all my papers at the International Space Development Conferences, between 2001 and 2007; especially, the New Mexico, California, Texas and Colorado chapters. To thank the old lady who came up to me after the 2003 San Jose presentation and told me that the US Navy had investigated gravity modification in the 1960s but nothing had come of it.

**2000-2002:** To thank Dr. Rob Davis, Physics Department, University of Denver, and Prof. Sen & Tom (my apologies, I’ve only known him by his first name), Electrical Engineering Department, University of Colorado at Denver, who gave me access to their department labs (2000-2002) to test my proprietary circuits.

**1999-2001**: To thank the many professional who now remain nameless in the distant fog of time (1999-2001) who asked me “have you tried…” this and “have you tried…” that, when I showed or talked to them about my experimental results with my proprietary electrical circuits.

**1990-1995:** To thank Prof. Philip Bourke (University College Dublin, Ireland) who told us one day in class ‘the academics would ask “Fine if it works in practice, but does it work in theory?” while the practitioners would ask “Fine if it works in theory, but does it work in practice?”’. I found this to be amazing statement. Its implications to physics is that both theoretical physicists and experimental physicists cannot be individually correct. They are only correct when both are correct, together! (Read ‘Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty’ by Morris Kline for an indepth discussion).

To thank my wife, Anushka, and son, David, who helped me with some of my experiments and road trips to space conferences.

As Prof. James Woodward (of the Woodward Effect) said in a recent (2011) email to some of us, ‘… it has always seemed to me that there aren’t really more than about 30 or 40 serious people in the “revolutionary propulsion” community world-wide’. With the publication of this book, I hope I have made the grade.

May you live long and prosper.

—————————————————————————————————

Benjamin T Solomon is the author & principal investigator of the 12-year study into the theoretical & technological feasibility of gravitation modification, titled An Introduction to Gravity Modification, to achieve interstellar travel in our lifetimes. For more information visit iSETI LLC, Interstellar Space Exploration Technology Initiative.